National Khural
Ecological situation

Ecological situation

Human economic activities and natural cataclysms account for the negative changes in the ecological situation in the republic. Atmosphere pollution, anthropogenic influence on different water objects and underground waters, erosion processes and pollution of soils and plants by heavy metals and pesticides, destruction of forests by fires and vermin poaching, disposal of industrial wastes and consumption contribute to the general deterioration of the Baikal environment.

Every year more than 130,000 tons of contaminating substance is discharged into the air and more than 700 mln cubic metres of sewage is dumped into water basins. 39,2% of agricultural area is exposed to erosion that causes reduces the biological diversity of plants.

The organisation and control of the realisation of the Complex Federal Programme of Baikal protection and rational use of natural resources in the Republic are entrusted to the State Committee of ecology and natural resources use in the Republic of Buryatia The State ecological control is carried out by the State Committee of Ecology together with services of Forest Protection, Goskomzem ( State Committee of Land), Baikal-rybvod ( Baikal Fish and water), tax inspection and prosecutors. Public ecological organisations and citizens take an active part in it as well.

Nature protection activities are directed to elaborating measures for reduction of anthropogeneous pollution and improvement of ecological situation.

The Complex Federal Programme, adopted to realise the Decree of the President of the Russian Federation dated March  25, 1992, N 295 On extreme measures for the state support of the economy of Buryat SSR provides measures for Lake Baikal protection and rational use of natural resources in its basin.

The programme envisions the elaboration and realisation of interrelated nature protection projects, social and economic measures, providing governing and organisational conditions, for sustainable development of the Baikal region, preservation and reproduction of unique ecological systems of Lake Baikal.

Since 1996 Baikal has been included into the list of " World Heritage, which has become an important step in solving nature protection problems in the region.

Solving the problems of environment protection and economic problems must be a closely interrelated process on the basis of ecological and economic development. This approach presents an evident change from the preceding history of development in the Baikal region.

Under modern conditions the most realistic way to solve nature protection problems is to develop the economy using ecologically safe and scientific technologies alongside traditional and cheap kinds of natural resources use. The present less-spending economy can not develop effectively under market conditions and does not correspond to modern ecological demands, though there are many debates on this topic at international forums.

A thorough analysis of  the present conditions of the regional economy and its perspectives enables one to identify major spheres of industry to become the basic for sustainable development of the region, i.e. agriculture, wood processing, power engineering and transport.

The choice of these areas of industry is based on two factors: firstly, they should satisfy the primary needs of the society, and secondly, they do not demand considerable expenditures for their development. However, this does not reduce the relevance of the problems of technical reconstruction aimed at reducing harmful ecological consequences.